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Report about Antisemitism in Spain during the year 2010 March 14, 2011

Posted by cristobalgomez in Uncategorized.
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Report based on information published by the Antisemitism Center, http://observatorioantisemitismo.fcje.org, and in the journals of Analysis about Antisemitism published by the Movement against Intolerance.

 

Table of Contents:

1. Introduction

2. Registered anti-Semitic acts

2.1 Attacks against people

2.2 Attacks against property

2.3 Media

2.4 Antisemitism on the Internet

2.5 Neo-Nazism

2.6 Trivialization of the Holocaust

2.7 Diffusion of anti-Semitic literature

2.8 Public institutions and organizations

3. The fight against antisemitism

3.1 Legal advances

3.2 Achieved initiatives

3.3 Reports and studies

3.4 Memory against hate

 

 

The images and texts cited in this report can be consulted at:

http://observatorioantisemitismo.fcje.org

1. Introduction

What is the Antisemitism Center?

The Antisemitism Center in Spain was created in 2009 with the objective of centralizing, cataloguing and analyzing the incidents of anti-Semitic nature in Spain, identifying their instigators and encouraging reflection through the analysis of its publications.

Created by the Federation of Jewish Communities of Spain and the Movement against Intolerance, under the framework of the second International Seminar about Antisemitism in Spain in November, 2009, the Center is one more link in the fight against this evil that despite having lost legitimacy in Europe, has not become a bad memory of the past, but has instead found new channels, pretexts, and actors.

The Antisemitism Center in Spain works to put into practice the already existent policies in the fight against antisemitism, and to propose new specific actions as much to the public administration as to organizations, mediums of communication, and the society in general.

What does the Center do?

The Center receives reports of anti-Semitic acts in Spain through its website: http://observatorioantisemitismo.fcje.org/and through Jewish and anti-racist organizations. It also has a volunteer group that monitors possible cases of anti-Semitism.

The Center classifies as anti-Semitic the acts committed toward people, organizations and/or property where evidence indicates that it was an act of this manner. In order for an act to be classified as anti-Semitic, it must have anti-Semitic motivation or content; if there is no evidence of either of these two aspects, the act is not considered to be anti-Semitic.

Definition of Antisemitism

The Center uses fundamentally the working definition of the OSCE

Antisemitism or criticism of Israel?

The distinction between antisemitism and a legitimate criticism of the actions of the Israeli government has generated and still generates debate and controversy. It is clearly incorrect to define as antisemitism all criticism of Israel. However, a large part of contemporary antisemitism is expressed within the framework of the Israeli-Palestinian conflict to the extent that discerning the line between legitimate criticism and antisemitism is not easy.

Nathan Sharansky has suggested a method which he calls the “3D Test”  and which proves helpful:

-Demonization:

In traditional antisemitism, Jews are demonized and portrayed as the ultimate personification of evil. When these classic stereotypes of antisemitism are used in criticisms of Israel, or when one uses analogies between Israel and the Third Reich (for example characterizing the Palestinian refugee camps as “concentration camps” and the Israelis as Nazis), this is demonization. Other examples include the caricatures that that depict Israeli leaders with the stereotypical physical traits with which anti-Semitic iconography characterized the Jews.

-Double Standard:

Classic antisemitism has always treated Jews differently than other people. In the same way, within the international arena, Israel is sometimes treated differently than other countries. The double standard is evident when an Israeli action is measured differently than the same or a similar action of another country.

Delegitimization

Antisemitism has denied the legitimacy of the Jews, both in religious terms (anti-Jewish Christianity) and in terms of community, tradition, or culture (modern antisemitism). The questioning of the very existence of the State of Israel, of the right of the Jews to their own State, tends to be a projection of the delegitimization of the Jew, especially if it is the only community that is denied the right to self-determination.

 

The Annual Report

The Antisemitism Center in Spain publishes an annual report with the acts that occurred during the past year.

This report includes all of the anti-Semitic acts registered by the Center classified in the following categories:

2.1 Attacks against people

2.2 Attacks against property

2.3 Media

2.4 Internet

2.5 Neo-Nazism

2.6 Trivialization of the Holocaust

2.7 Diffusion of anti-Semitic literature

2.8 Public Institutions and organizations

This report does not include general activities of anti-Semitic organizations, nor specific information about websites and forums with permanent anti-Semitic content.

2. Registered anti-Semitic acts

In 2010, 28 reports were received, of which 9 were not taken into consideration because they were cases which:

·     did not occur in Spain (websites in Spanish but produced outside of Spain, especially in Latin America); or

·     were criticisms of  Israel, but did not use anti-Semitic language (see Antisemitism or criticism of Israel?); or

·     could not prove to have anti-Semitic motivation or content

2.1 Attacks against people:

This category refers to violence (verbal or physical) against people, regardless of whether the person is Jewish or not. It includes verbal attacks such as insults and threats, in a direct manner or through written messages, voicemails, mail, e-mail, text messages, etc…)

1.     Madrid, February 1st

Reuvén, 22-years-old, was a victim of aggression and insults from a passerby in Madrid due to his religious Jewish attire. After reporting the case to the OdA, the young man reported the details to the police as well. A trial was finally held, and in the absence of witnesses, the ruling held that both parties involved in the event deserved criminal penalty and imposed a 60 euro fine on the young Jewish man and a fine of 120 euro for the woman.

2.     February

Writer Clara Sánchez, winner of the Premio Nadal (a Spanish literary prize) in 2010 with the novel  Lo que esconde tu nombre (What Your Name Hides), received several threatening letters from former Nazis living on the coast of Eastern Spain and outside of the country. The novel Lo que esconde tu nombre recreates the tranquil life led by a Norwegian couple, former Nazis, on the East Coast of Spain, until their life crosses paths with Julian, a Spanish republican who was imprisoned in the Mauthausen camp.

“What are you afriad of, Ms. Sanchez? Why don´t you answer me? Heil Hitler” said one of the letters that the writer received signed with first and last names.

3.     Madrid, June 7th

An Israeli businessman who was preparing to participate in a Spanish-Israeli meeting about renewable energies at the Autonomous University of Madrid was attacked by approximately 200 youths at the entrance of the University chanting “Murderer” “Israel, Zionist, terrorist state”  and calls to the Intifada. The act was stopped.

Images taken during the attack on Israeli citizens at the Autonomous University. – Source: Libertad Digital.

2.2 Attacks against property

This category refers to attacks received against any property that does not endanger any people. It includes graffiti, posters, banners, and damage to buildings.

1.     Malaga: Duquesa de Parcent Street, next to the Israeli Community of Malaga Synagogue

2.     Torremolinos, next to the Synagogue and the kosher butcher

3.     Madrid, Marques de la Romana Street, across from the back door of the headquarters of the Jewish Community of Madrid

2.3 Media

This category refers to all of the anti-Semitic statements in written and audiovisual media. It includes opinion articles and cartoons.

1.     La Tronera (The Hole) by Antonio Gala – newspaper El Mundo – date: 10-19-2010

The newspaper El Mundo published this column written by Antonio Gala, entitled “Dangerous Word” in which he compares the history of the Jews in Poland with the decisions made by the Israeli government, among other claims.

2. Cartoons

This cartoon presents a critique of the State of Israel for its security policies and its separation from the Palestinian population in the territories administered by the National Palestinian Authority (NPA). In the story, El Roto uses nothing less than the true core of the Christian tradition – the birth of Jesus in the manger in Bethlehem – precisely on the day (December 24th) that the Christian world celebrates its coming into the world. In this sense, the message operates on two levels: one is expressed on the level of reason (political criticism) and the other is latently situated on the level of emotions. The latter ventures into the confines of anti-Judaism, as the association (what semiologists would call “intertextuality”) with the Christian iconography is explicitly sought by the artist. The Palestinian mother – Mariam – is represented as a modern Pietà. Jesus who was born 2000 years ago, is born again today in the form of a suffering, harassed, and oppressed Palestinian child. The enemies of yesterday and of today are the same.

2.4 Internet

This category includes anti-Semitic statements from websites originating in Spain with Nazi orientations, which justify the Holocaust and consider it their duty to carry on Hitler´s work.

It also contains anti-Semitic messages in diverse forums and in commentaries about articles that were published on blogs and other pages. Some media provides the opportunity to the reader to create a blog within their own structure, and allows them to include anti-Semitic content.

As we have already mentioned, this report does not include a list or specific information about websites and forums with permanent anti-Semitic content.

The Movement against Intolerance has registered over 400 websites in Spain that spread hatred, racism, antisemitism, xenophobia and other related forms of intolerance.

Examples:

NAZI-FASCIST BLOG: The National Resistance Iscar group has created a blog (resistencianacionaliscar.blogspot.com). In said blog, one can observe neo-Nazi symbolism and links to other websites with similar ideology. Valladolid.

JAEN NR BLOG: The neo-Nazi group National Revolutionary Jaen has created a blog (jaen-nr.blogspot.com). In this blog there are links to much of the neo-Nazi world. The site has references to Rudolf Hess and has much anti-Semitic and Nazi analysis and indoctrination.

SKINS LAS ROZAS BLOG: The skin-head Nazi group Las Rozas (Madrid) has created a blog (lasrozasnosurrender.blogspot.com). From this blog one can find links to other skin groups and legalized neo-Nazi parties.

NEW FRONT BLOG: The neo-Nazi group from Murcia has created a blog (nuevofrente.blogia.com). From this blog they organize activities and distribute Nazi material.

SOTO RESISTANCE BLOG: The neo-Nazi group Soto de Real (Madrid) has launched its blog (sotodelrealresiste.blogspot.com) from which it organizes activities and distributes materials of anti-Semitic and Nazi character.

2.5     Neo-Nazism

This category includes activities, public acts and/or manifestations of a revisionist nature in relation to the Holocaust, as well as Nazi protest activities, symbols, and ideology.

1.     Manfred Roeder

The ex-SS Manfred Roeder, condemned for his terrorist acts and defense of Nazism, was invited in the month of April by the European Library,

Property of Pedro Varela, to give a series of conferences titled “Mass immigration and the future of Europe” in Barcelona, Madrid, and San Sebastián.

In the face of protests and complaints, the hotel intended to host the conference in San Sebastián cancelled the contract while the Office of the Interior and the Ministry of the Interior did not authorize celebration of the act in any public space in Basque Country.

In Barcelona, at the request of the special prosecutor of Hate Crimes and Discrimination, the Mossos d’Esquadra recorded Manfred Roeder’s speech in the European Library. The police orders to record it and act if a criminal action was committed.

2.     “Act in memory of our Führer”

The platform People’s Action Against Impunity denounced a call posted on the Internet by the National Socialist Youth Group of the city of Valencia under the title “Act in memory of our Führer.”

The act was convened in the seat of right-wing extremist party Social Republican Movement (MSR), the same location the Civil Guard registered in 2005 for being considered the seat of the illegal neo-Nazi organization Anti-System Front. The government’s delegate in the Valencian Community, Ricardo Peralta, asserted that they could not avoid homage to Adolf Hitler, but assured the community that the police would “closely” monitor said act.

3.     National Indoor Football League

The National Indoor Football League posted on their website a photographic montage and music by radical supporters of Talavera (Toledo) which featured neo-Nazi symbols and greetings.

4.     Ultra fascists at the Universidad Complutense de Madrid

Recognized ultra fascists gave classes over 5 months in the Faculty of Sociology of the Universidad Complutense de Madrid.

Juan Antonio Aguilar, ex-director of the right-wing extremist party Republican Social Movement (MSR), and Sara Fernández, also on the extreme right, gave a course which ended in June and gave voice to conspiracy theories concerning Israel, ETA, 9/11, war crimes, and Goebbels’s mastery as a propagandist.

In this course, organized by the Department of Social Psychology at the Faculty of Political Science and Sociology at the Universidad Complutense de Madrid, Jesús Palacios also appeared as docent, responsible for external relations of the Spanish Circle of Friends of Europe (CEDADE), one of the most active neo-Nazi groups of the twentieth century and disseminator of European revisionist ideas denying the Holocaust.

5.     Neo-Nazi concert. Rock for fans of the SS.

Coruña entered the circuit of neo-Nazi project “The Europe of Nations”  with Finisterrac Festival. Galician groups broadcast anti-Semitic speeches on the web. “For Germany and Europe, / for a free West, / from which the last in Berlin still resist, faithful to the Reich / against Bolshevism and its dark powers / […] I know that you will never forget, glory and honor to the Waffen SS.” This is the refrain of Ruhm und Ehre der Waffen SS, a theme of the German bang Stahlgewitter adapted by the Galician OrigeNS.

6.     Movement against Intolerance reports that during 2010, around 30 Neo-Nazi concerts took place, with racist, hateful, anti-Semitic, xenophobic music.

7.     Congress of the National Alliance

During the Congress held in Logroño, the president of this legal party, Pedro Pablo Peña, declared to the digital media Rioja2.com, in the face of media coverage of its neo-Nazi character, he made clear: “AN does not verge on Neo-Nazism, it falls into it” and explained that they are a national revolutionary movement which has as a political substratum the European facisms. One part of the AN “does not verge on Nazism, it embraces it.”

2.6     Trivialization of the Holocaust

This category includes activities, public acts and/or manifestations where the Holocaust is mentioned with revisionist intention or for its political manipulation.

1.     Act of the Spanish Alternative and Spain & Freedom

Tuesday the 28th of November, the extreme-right organizations of the Spanish Alternative and Spain & Freedom celebrated a racist and xenophobic political ceremony in Madrid with the pretext of homage to Ángel Sanz-Brinz, a Spanish diplomat who protected more than 5,000 Jews in Budapest during World War II, saving them from deportation to Nazi death camps. The ceremony was a gross manipulation of the Holocaust and the noble humanitarian action of some Spanish diplomats with a double objective: the rehabilitation of Franco’s dictatorship, and the diffusion of anti-Muslim hate speech.

2.7     Dissemination of anti-Semitic literature

This category include mass distribution, whether by sale or not, of materials (books, CDs, o any other audiovisual medium) which incite anti-Semitic hate.

The diffusion of anti-Semitic and Nazi material has reached extraordinary levels, never before seen in Spain, being distributed not only in our country, but also sent to Latin America, the United States, and the majority of European country. Some examples of the use of distribution networks are:

1.     European Library

There is a collection of titles of titles which spread, in addition to Nazi classics, texts about “globalism,” “Zionism,”  of a conspiratorial nature among old revisionists and modern anti-Semites.

2.     New Republic Publications (Ediciones Nueva Republica)

Organizes the commercialization of materials from the Internet and distributes them via alternative routes to the big commercial carriers. Edits Nazi and anti-Semitic histories. Propagates the principles of the Third Reich and the ideas of Rudolf Hess.

3.     The House of the Book (La Casa del Libro)

La Casa del Libro in Madrid sells The Protocols of the Sages of Zion.

2.8     Anti-Semitism in Public Institutions and Organizations

1.     Public administrations

No cases of anti-Semitism have been registered in Public Administrations

2.     Madrid, June

Using a double standard against Israel, the organizers of Gay Pride in Madrid decided to veto, in their annual parade, the presence of an Israeli float from Tel Aviv, using the excuse that the government did not condemn the assault on the self-styled “Freedom Float.”

3. The fight against anti-Semitism

Anti-Semitism must be fought. The first step is recognizing its existence. The second is, without a doubt, education, the most effective method of facing it. Simultaneously, we must put an end to the diffusion of hate speech as claimed by laws and international accords. For these steps, a firm institutional commitment is necessary. History has shown that the level of anti-Semitism in a society is a thermometer for the measurement of democratic health and the degree of liberty and tolerance enjoyed.

3.1 Legal Advances in 2010

1.     Pedro Varela sentenced to 2 years 9 months in prison

Pedro Varela, owner of the European Library in Barcelona, has entered the Lladoners penitentiary, where he will complete a sentence of 15 months of the crime of dissemination of ideas justifying genocide, after being refused the suspension of his sentence at the request of the Office of Hate Crimes and Discrimination of the Public Prosecutor’s Office of Barcelona.

The owner of the European Library of Barcelona and editor of Ojeda Publications was accused by the Israeli Community of Barcelona for diffusion of genocidal ideas and for threatening fundamental rights, considering the works he marketed represent “contempt for the Jewish people and other minorities.”

This is the first Spanish case of serving a prison sentence for such crimes. In the sentence, it was declared proven that by means of the European Library and Ojeda Publications, Pedro Varela has habitually and continually dedicated himself to selling and spreading, as much in the library itself as through catalogs sent by post and websites or emails, books and publications which praise the genocides committed by Hitler’s Third Reich against the Jewish people and other minorities, as well as publications which disdain other races or ethnicities, homosexuals, and people with disabilities.

2. Sentence against “Blood & Honour”

July 5th, the Provincial Court of Madrid agreed to dissolve the neo-Nazi group Blood & Honour, and sentenced 14 of the 18 group members to terms between 1-3 years and 6 months in prison, for conspiracy and possession of weapons.

In the opinion of  the court, it does not just concern the group’s propagation of Nazism and glorification of Adolf Hitler, but also spreading “an entire systematic and planned activity” under the appearance of artistic discourse and intellectual anti-globalization, with which “they intend to glorify the killers and justify their deeds.”

3.  Pioneer sentence in the fight against advocating genocide on  the Internet

A 23-year-old was sentences to 2 years in prison for advocating genocide on the Internet. The trial was held on June 17, and although the accused will not go to prison because the sentence is less than 2 years, this sentence is groundbreaking when it comes to punishment of this type of crime.

According to the indictment, the accused posted on his website various videos relating to the Third Reich and the private life of Adolf Hitler and Joseph Goebbels. In addition, the site contained a like to a library with access to book of clearly anti-Semitic and xenophobic content, such as Mein Kampf or The Second Leuchter Report, which questions the use and purpose of gas extermination chambers.

4.     The National Court will investigate the violence of neo-Nazi groups

The Supreme Court ordered this tribunal to handle the case against the Spanish Falangist Movement and Tradition for urban terrorism. The decision of the Supreme Court represents a victory of the Public Prosecutor of the National Court, which spent over a year battling for these types of cases to stay within this tribunal and no end up in the territorial courts. It chief, Javier Zaragoza, named Daniel Campos as coordinator for the investigation of bands and groups of neo-Nazi character on September 10, 2009.

5.     The Public Prosecutor investigates 2 neo-Nazi groups for inciting hatred in a concert in Sabadell.

The Public Prosecutor of Cataluña is investigating a concert given last October 30th in Sabadell by the neo-Nazi groups “Battalion of Punishment” and “More than Words” to determine if its performers performed the crime of incitement to hatred with the lyrics to their songs.

As reported by the public ministry, the neo-Nazi concert was recorded in full by the Mossos d’Esquadra, by order of the prosecutor who specializes in crimes of Hatred and Discrimination, Miguel Ángel Aguilar, who is currently analyzing the lyrics of the performances. The recital, after a failed attempt to be held in Barcelona, finally took place in the Kon-Fusión Room in Sabadell (Barcelona) last Saturday night, with some 250 attendees.

Among the members of this Nazi-minded groups are also people with criminal and police records for crimes of intentional homicide, injury, and public disorders. In fact, one of the leaders of the “Battalion of Punishment” is the director of the fascist formation of National Alliance, and was convicted for stabbing a young man in Madrid in 1990. Some of the “Battalion of Punishment’s” songs are openly anti-Semitic.

6.     Movement Against Intolerance creates an Office of Reports for Internet Hate Crimes. Facebook groups promoting the killing, hatred, and violence against Esteban Ibarra have been reported.

With an obvious neo-Nazi participation, 61 people joined the Facebook group called “I also think Esteban Ibarra should die” where they posted racist comments about the president of Movement against Intolerance, including the willingness to finance his assassination and encouraging violence against him.

At the same time, another group of 793 members, named “I hate Esteban Ibarra” was found, promoting violence, racism, anti-Semitism, and xenophobia.

After the verification of the unending commission of hate crimes and racism, Movement against Intolerance reported that it had begun operating an Office of Reports on the Internet, assisted by a lawyer of the association, which will channel to the Public Prosecutors of hate crimes and discrimination in Barcelona, Madrid, and the National Court reports by Internet users of incitation to hatred, crimination, and violence for motives of racism, anti-Semitism, or other references to ideology, religion, family situation, ethnicity, national origin, gender and sexual orientation, or any other discriminatory motive.

3.2 Initiatives fulfilled in 2010

1.     Third International Seminar on Anti-Semitism

The 24th and 25th of November, the Third International Seminar on Anti-Semitism was held in Spain in the Fundación Caja Navarra of Madrid. The Seminar, organized by the Federation of Jewish Communities of Spain and with the support of various institutions, was attended by over 20 experts in the material, national and from abroad, and has the aim of awareness, education, and civic engagement confronting the problem of anti-Semitism in Spain.

2.     Creation of the Civic Network in the fight against anti-Semitism

After the commissioning of the Observatory of Anti-Semitism in Spain in 2009, this year the Civic Network in the fight against anti-Semitism was presented within the framework of the Third Seminar. It is about the first network of this nature formed in Spain. A score of organizations and experts from different specialties form part of this network which will work in four fields: legal, social, educational, and communicational.

3.     Special fund for the Holocaust

The “Gerardo Diego” Municipal Library of Vallecas Villa, Madrid, is one of the few public libraries in Spain with a special fund for the Holocaust.

This fund, created through the personal efforts of the directors of the library themselves, is available and its catalog and updates can be found on the library’s blog: http://www.madrid.es/UnidadesDescentralizadas/Bibliotecas/Equipamientos/ficheros/gu%C3%ADa%20SHOAH%2010.pdf

4.     Creation of the Violeta Friedman Foundation

On May 25th, on the 10-year anniversary of her death, the Violeta Friedman Foundation, whose objectives include the creation of a Holocaust Memorial Center in the capital and a program for students and young people to visit extermination camps, appeared in Madrid.

Camps such as Auschwitz-Birkenau, the one Friedman was sent to in March of 1044 at the age of 14.

The Foundations maintains the legacy of a woman characterized by her valor in confronting the ex-head of the Waffen SS Leon Degrelle and for her fight against the forgetting, denial, and trivialization of the Holocaust.

5.     Seminar for Spanish lawyers organized by the Department of External Affairs and Sefarad-Israel House.

The “Holocaust, Genocide, and Crimes against Humanity” Seminar took place from November 22 to 25. The Seminar, which 25 Spanish lawyers attended, was held with the objective of studying the legal aspect of the Holocaust and its present implications to create a framework for approaching the topic for Spanish lawyers.

6. Seminars for educators in Yad Vashem

During 2010, there have been various seminars about the memory of the Holocaust and the transmission of that memory meant for educators and members of organizations dedicated to the fight against anti-Semitism in Spain. The seminars were organized by Yad Vashem and the Sefarad-Israel House.

7. Acts performed on the International Day of Commemoration in  Memory of the Victims of the Holocaust and Prevention of Crimes  against Humanity

January 21: Act of State in the auditorium of the Universidad Complutense de Madrid, involving, among other, the Minister of Foreign Affairs and Cooperation, the Minister of Education, the Minister of Culture, and Jacobo Israel Garzón, President of the Federation of Jewish Communities in Spain, who indicated the necessity of the memory of the Holocaust to prevent the development of anti-Semitism and racial hatred.

Other acts in Memory of the Victims of the Holocaust and Prevention of Crimes against Humanity:

Official Act of Parliament in the Balearic Islands

Official Act in the Assembly of Madrid

Institutional Act in the Museu Valencià de la Il.lustració  de la Modernitat

Institutional Declaration of the Parliament of Galicia

Public Act in the Plaza del Rei, Barcelona

Public Act in Altea

Public Act in the Juventa Association of Jaén

Public act in the monument of the Parque del Invierno, Oviedo

Public Act in the Three Cultures Foundation of Sevilla

8.     The Mauthausen Guides

Student of the 1st Bachillerato of the Palomeras Vallecas Institute became in February 2010 guides for an exhibition on Nazism, under the slogan “Mauthausen universe of horror,” in collaboration with the Amical de Mauthausen.

3.3 Reports and Studies

1.     Study on Anti-Semitism in Spain, commissioned by the Sefarad-Israel House

September 8th, the then-Minister of External Affairs and Cooperation, Miguel Ángel Moratinos, presented the survey on anti-Semitism performed at the request of the Sefarad-Israel House and performed by the polling institute DYM. Performed with the objective of determining the real level of anti-Semitism in Spain, the study was performed by 1,012 telephone interviews to citizens over 15 years of age during the month of April.

The Observatory of Anti-Semitism has positively valued the study, which is the first performed by a public establishment in Spain.

The data provided in the report are highly alarming.The rejection of Jewish people in the Spanish population reaches intolerable levels and should be an urgent call for the attention of state institutions. The study realizes that the stigmatization and negative prejudice are the order of the day in Spain.

Significant data from the study:

·     58.4% of the Spanish population believes that “The Jewish people are powerful because they control the economy and the means of communication.” Among university students this number reaches 62.2% and among the responders with “political interest” 70.5% (p. 94 of the report). These numbers are as surprising as they are worrying: the most anti-Semitic are supposedly the most educated and informed.

·     More than a third (34.6%) of Spanish people has an unfavorable or completely unfavorable opinion of Jewish people. Here we find the most striking data: The extreme right has an less unfavorable opinion of Jewish people (34%) than the center-left (37.7%) and sympathy for Jewish people in the extreme right (4.9 on a scale of 1-10) is above the average for the population (4.6) (p. 47 and 57 of the report). If these numbers are correct, Spain would be the only case in Europe, and the country would have a real problem.

·     Among those who recognize themselves as having “antipathy for the Jewish people,” only 17% says this is due to the “conflict in the Middle East.” There is a number of reasons given by those surveyed who make up 29.6%, which have to do with “their religion,” “their customs,” and “their way of life,”etc. To these they add others such as “general dislike” or related to “power” and “money.” 17% say they dislike the Jewish people but do not know the reason (p. 59 of the report). According to the data, the negative valuation of Jewish people in the Spanish population cannot be associated “with the state of Israel and its policies.”

2.     Notebooks of Analysis of Movement against Intolerance

Within this collection of notebooks, which can be found in whole athttp://www.movimientocontralaintolerancia.com/html/cuadernosAnalisis/cuadernos_analisis.asp, there are various number especially related to anti-Semitism, such as:

No. 30: Anti-Semitism in Spain

No. 35: Educating in Memory, advancing in Justice

No. 36: Hate Crime Laws Practical Guide (OSCE)

Recently a new number has appeared, No. 39, titled Xenophobia in times of crisis, Confronting Anti-Semitism (ADL)

3.4 Memory against Hate

1.     Memory of the Nazi horror. Defying the Third Reich

During the first trimester of the year, the Goethe Institute, emblem of German culture in Madrid, dedicated an interesting exposition to the student resistance against Nazism, a little-known phenomenon in Spain, like resistance to Franco. Explanatory panels, photography, pamphlets, and drawings, along with films and documentaries, trace the story of the heroic deeds headed by a group of youths who created the clandestine organization The White Rose in the heart of Nazi Germany.

2. 65th Anniversary of the liberation of the Mauthausen Nazi camp

Spain paid homage in May 2010 to the republican Spanish victims of the old Nazi concentration camp Mauthausen, liberated by US troops on May 5, 1945

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